The term is the temperature-dependent bandgap (e V); given as the simplified first order Taylor series of the experimental bandgap temperature.

In actual silicon devices the recombination components are a complex function of the carrier concentration.The primary advantage of the De Soto model is that its parameters can be calculated from data given on module manufacturer datasheets.Equivalent circuit models define the entire I-V curve of a cell, module, or array as a continuous function for a given set of operating conditions.For example, in high efficiency PERL solar cells as the number of carriers increase with the applied voltage, the recombination at the rear surface changes dramatically with voltage.In such cases the analysis is best performed by a single diode, but allowing both the ideality factor and the saturation current to vary with voltage.

## Single diode equivalent circuit models

At high voltage, When the recombination in the device is dominated by the surfaces and the bulk regions the ideality factor is close to one.However at lower voltages, recombination in the junction dominates and the ideality factor approaches two.In such cases, which are quite common in silicon devices, a double diode fit yields erroneous values. In electronics, diode modelling refers to the mathematical models used to approximate the actual behaviour of real diodes to enable calculations and circuit analysis.This article discusses the modelling of p-n junction diodes, but the techniques may be generalized to other solid state diodes.

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