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The six loading fields show the correlations between the local anomalies of each field and the MEI time series.

Land areas as well as the Atlantic are excluded and flagged in green, while typically noisy regions with no coherent structures and/or lack of data are shown in grey.

The longest two events included here lasted through most of 1954--75.

How does the 2010-12 La Niña event compare against the six previous biggest La Niña events since 1949?This figure includes only strong events (with at least three bimonthly rankings in the top seven), after replacing the slightly weaker 2007-09 event with 2010-12 (rankings are listed here).La Niña events have lasted up to and over three years since 1949, in fact, they do tend to last longer on average than El Niño events.NEWSFLASH: Processing of ICOADS was delayed by more than three weeks in December 2016.We are working with NCEI to reduce the risk of similar delays in the future.

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IMPORTANT CHANGE: The MEI used to be updated every month during the first week of the following month based on near-real time marine ship and buoy observations (courtesy of Diane Stokes at NCEP).However, this product has been discontinued as of March 2011 (ICOADS-compatible 2-degree monthly statistics).Negative values of the MEI represent the cold ENSO phase, a.k.a.La Niña, while positive MEI values represent the warm ENSO phase (El Niño).Each field is denoted by a single capitalized letter and the explained variance for the same field in the Australian corner.

The sea level pressure (P) loadings show the familiar signature of the Southern Oscillation: high pressure anomalies in the west and low pressure anomalies in the east correspond to positive MEI values, or El Niño-like conditions. These observations have been collected and published in ICOADS for many years. These six variables are: sea-level pressure (P), zonal (U) and meridional (V) components of the surface wind, sea surface temperature (S), surface air temperature (A), and total cloudiness fraction of the sky (C).This figure includes only strong events (with at least three bimonthly rankings in the top seven), with the exception of the 2009-10 event that reached the top seven ranking twice.Compared to the previous version of this figure, 1997-98 now reaches very similar peak values to the 1982-83 event, just above the 3.0 sigma threshold.

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